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1)    Dunning-Kruger Effect In the article “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Dif

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1)    Dunning-Kruger Effect
In the article “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments”, the authors, Justin Kruger and David Dunning addressed the unawareness of one’s own incompetence. Individuals will quite often have excessively ideal perspectives of their capacities in numerous social and scholarly spaces. The authors propose that this misjudgment happens, to some extent, since individuals who are incompetent in these spaces experience a double weight: Not just do these individuals arrive at incorrect resolutions and settle on shocking decisions, however, their ineptitude denies them of the metacognitive capacity to acknowledge it. In this article, the author discusses four different studies to assess the results of different participants. The authors found that participants who got scores in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic terribly misjudged their test execution and capacity. Even though their grades put them in the twelfth percentile, they assessed themselves to be in the 62nd. Numerous questions connected this miscalibration to deficiencies in metacognitive ability, or the ability to recognize exactness from the mistake. Perplexingly, working on the abilities of members, and in this way expanding their metacognitive skills, assisted them with perceiving the restrictions of their capacities (Kruger and Dunning).
The first major lesson one can be learned from this article is that incompetent people neglect to acquire understanding into their own ineptitude by noticing the conduct of others (Kruger and Dunning). Regarding the application of this lesson in my life, I learned that if I only observe the actions of other people, I will not be able to understand my own flaws. Therefore, I should only keep focusing on my own actions for getting better insights into my competency and incompetency. This lesson will help make a better person by developing skills of self-focus on the flaws and their improvements.
The second major lesson one can be learned from this article is that cultivating participants’ metacognitive abilities likewise worked on the exactness of their self-examinations (Kruger and Dunning). If I applied this lesson to my life, so I learned that improvement of skills is an important aspect. Improving my weakness and turning them into abilities will help me make accurate claims about my knowledge and abilities about anything. This lesson will help make me a better person by helping me to learn more skills to improve my weaknesses in any areas of personal and professional life.
Works Cited
Kruger, Justin and David Dunning. “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.6 (1999): l 121-1134. PDF.
2) In a journal  titled “Unskilled and Unaware of it”, the authors Austin Kruger and David Dunning put together research on incompetent people. In this research the authors explained how difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence leads to inflated self- assessments. They argued that when people are incompetent in the strategies they adopt to achieve success and satisfaction, they suffer a dual burden. By putting together many studies and methods to prove their hypothesis, the authors concluded that those with limited knowledge in a domain do indeed suffer a dual burden. Also concluding that some individuals’ incompetence robs them from realizing their mistaken conclusions and errors. 
There are many lessons people can take from this article, one is to be confident and don’t limit yourself. I got that lesson from the first study in the article, the predictions stated that “incompetent individuals have more difficulty recognizing their true level of ability than do more competent individuals”. Another lesson you could get from this article is to strive to be better everyday. The authors said many times that incompetence causes poor performance, and people have the tendency to have the “Above- average Effect”. Which is where an average person believes he or she is above average. 
Reading this article, one can become a better person by learning how to be teachable. Throughout the article the authors explained how incompetence people were that way mainly because they didn’t realize their mistakes. Also incompetence was caused by individuals who thought they were already above average, when in reality, they weren’t. You should be able to recognize your mistakes and willingly want to correct yourself and learn from those errors.
3) Dunning Kruger Effect Discussion Response
In the article “Unskilled and Unaware of It:  How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments” by Justin Kruger and David Dunning created a study that explored the four predictions on the links between competence, metacognitive ability and inflated self-assessment. Study 1 used humor, study 2 and 4 used logical reasoning, and study 3 used English grammar. In the study the participants were asked to “assess their ability and test performance” (Kruger and Dunning 3). Data showed that on average people will rate themselves better than others on things like grammar. Those that are not so good with certain abilities are the ones to most likely overate their skills or not be aware of their lack of knowledge. Overall, this is called the Dunning Kruger Effect and the article goes into more in depth detail about each study that was performed.
The first thing I learned from reading the article “Unskilled and Unaware of It” was that the Dunning Kruger happens to everyone but can disappear by developing metacognitive skills. The article states that “participants overestimated their logical reasoning ability relative to their peers” (Kruger and Dunning 5).  Meaning that many of us could think we are good at something and even better than others, but the reality is that if we believe that we are probably not. I think it is important to self-reflect and be aware of what we think we know. It’s important to take a step back and think about what you’re good and continue to improve. I think that from now on I will incorporate self-reflection by journaling and stopping to think before I say that I am good at something.
The second thing I learned from this article is that if one does not develop these metacognitive skills, they will suffer a dual burden by making poor choices and not learning from those mistakes because of incompetence (Kruger and Dunning 1). By developing these metacognitive skills, I can become a better person by learning from my mistakes. Learning from my mistakes can allow me to improve my skills. Also, I learned that it is important to know when to ask for advice and help. Asking for help when needed will allow me to grow and be more aware of myself. Overall, improving my metacognitive skills will allow me to monitor my mistakes and allow me improve my critical thinking skills.
Works Cited
Kruger, Justin, and David Dunning. Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments. American Psychological Association, 1999,
4) The Dunning-Kruger Effect is when someone believes they know more about a subject or are more competent than they actually are. David Dunning and Justin Kruger were two social psychologists who researched this effect. They performed four studies that tested humor, grammar, competence, and assessing competence in other people. These studies concluded that people who have a lower ability did not have the tools necessary to self-assess. It led the subjects to think their capabilities were higher than what they were in reality. They also could not accurately assess another individual’s competence. In Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self – Assessments, the authors Justin Kruger and David Dunning claim, “In essence, we argue that the skills that engender competence in a particular domain are often the very same skills necessary to evaluate competence in that domain – one’s own or anyone else’s” (Kruger and Dunning 1121). Therefore, when people believe they have a higher capability and knowledge base than they do, they display the Dunning-Kruger effect.
I believe I can be a better person by becoming more skilled in key parts of life. The key to being able to self-assess is by being more competent in a certain skill. In Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self – Assessments, the authors Justin Kruger and David Dunning declare, “If one skims through the psychological literature, one will find some evidence that the incompetent are less than their more skilled peers to gauge their own level of competence” (Kruger and Dunning 1122). Therefore, if I become more skilled in an area, I would better analyze where I lack. Once I recognize the places I lack, I can improve on those areas to become more competent. So, if I become more skilled in being more empathetic or patient, I could become better at it and become a better person. I will practice being more proficient in these crucial components of life to be a better person.
Another way I believe I can be a better person is by asking for feedback from other people. In Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self – Assessments, the authors Justin Kruger and David Dunning note, “The central proposition in our argument is that incompetent individuals lack the metacognitive skills that enable them to tell how poorly they are performing, and as a result, they come to hold inflated views of their performance and ability” (Kruger and Dunning 1127). I have never wanted to be the person who thinks I am better than what I am. Therefore, if I ask for constructive criticism from peers or people close to me, I could become aware of my weaknesses. Taking their feedback and working on my shortcomings would help me become a better person. For example, in my previous employment, I would meet once a month with a peer. My peer would provide me feedback for my performance. Their feedback would help me become better at my job. In the same manner, I could use this technique in my everyday life. I can ask the people around me for feedback on my communication style or my attitude. Their feedback would help me improve in those areas. Consequently, by asking for input from other people, I could become a better person.
Work Cited
Kruger, Justin, and David Dunning. “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 77, no. 6, 1999, pp. 1121–1134.

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